From King to Obama: A Fulfillment of Jewish Prophecy? (by Wm. Dwight McKissic, Sr.)

In Celebration of Martin Luther King, Jr., Holiday January 20, 2014

Psalm 68:31
“Princes shall come out of Egypt; Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God.”

Does the Hebrew Scripture predict descendants of Africa occupying seats of worldwide political influence and power before the Lord returns? Was the election of Barack Hussein Obama a fulfillment of biblical prophecy? Does a study of Noah’s descendants throughout the Bible demonstrate a pattern of how God has operated in the history of mankind? Did Martin Luther King, Jr. have a unique sense or intuitive knowledge of the special role of Israel in world history? The answers to these questions from my vantage point are, Yes! Yes! Yes! And Yes!

My thesis is:  A study of the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament regarding Noah’s sons and their descendants will indicate that the children of Ham would experience political and spiritual empowerment and renewal before the coming of the Lord within a Judeo-Christian context. Are we in the midst of witnessing, “Princes coming out of Egypt, and the Ethiopian stretching out their hand to God”? Could President Obama, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Pastor Fred Luter, Justice Clarence Thomas, Ms. Condoleezza Rice, Lecrae and Kofi Annan be partially fulfilling this verse (to name just a few)?

The day after Senator Barack Obama won the election for President of the United States in 2008, an Anglo Texas Southern Baptist Convention Pastor sent the following email to a close friend of mine who also happened to be an Anglo Southern Baptist Convention pastor:

“If our ancestors had known that the country would come to this they might have picked their own [_____] cotton.” [You can probably guess correctly what word was originally in the place of the blank, that I chose to leave blank.]

Africans were brought to the United States to pick cotton, not to pick Presidents, and certainly not to be elected President. If the slave masters realized that Nat Turner, Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, Richard Allen, Ralph Abernathy, Martin Luther King and many of the men and women who voted for Senator Obama were in those slave ships, the ships would not have been allowed to leave the docks of West Africa.

Dr. King understood the commonality of suffering and being victimized by discrimination shared by the Negro and the Jew. As the guest speaker at the first American Jewish Congress convention held in a Southern state, Florida, King noted:

“My people were brought to America in chains. Your people were driven here to escape the chains fashioned for them in Europe. Our unity is born of our common struggle for centuries, not only to rid ourselves of bondage, but to make oppression of any people by others an impossibility.” (Rabbi Marc Schneier, Shared Dreams: Martin Luther King, Jr. & The Jewish Community, Jewish Lights Publishing, Woodstock, VT, P. 34)

Rabbi March Schneier, author of this insightful and engaging book, Shared Dreams, also acknowledged and affirm the roots of the relationship between Jews and Africans go all the way back to the Bible:

“The relationship between Jews and blacks dates back to the days of the Hebrews. The forefathers of Abraham were the dark-skinned Cushites. Moses had no difficulty passing himself off as olive-skinned Egyptian, and his wife, Tzipporah was a woman of color. The line between Jews and darker-skinned people was pliable and porous—and often it completely disappeared.” (Schneier, Shared Dreams, P. 20)

The late Radio Bible Preacher, J. Vernon McGhee provides an interesting, arresting, and I believe accurate understanding of the identity and historical development of the races of mankind recorded in Genesis 10:

“The first great civilization, therefore, came out from the sons of Ham. We need to recognize that. It is so easy today to fall into the old patterns that we were taught in school a few years ago. Now the black man is wanting more study of his race. I don’t blame him. He hasn’t been given an opportunity in the past several hundred years. The story of the beginning of the black man is that he headed up the first two great civilizations that appeared on this earth. They were from the sons of Ham. Nimrod was a son of Ham. I’m not going to attempt to develop that line any further.” (J. Vernon McGhee, Through the Bible-Genesis, Thomas Nelson, Inc., Nashville, TN, 1981, p. 51)

McGhee further elaborates on Genesis 10:

“In chapter 10, seventy nations are listed. Fourteen of them are from Japheth. Thirty of them come from Ham. Don’t forget that. It will give you a different conception of the Black man at his beginning. And twenty-six nations come from Shem….

Why has the white man in our day been so prominent? Well, I tell you why. Because at the beginning it was the Black man, the colored races, that were prominent.

Apparently, we are currently in the period in which the white man has come to the front. It seems to me that all three are demonstrating that regardless of whether they are a son of Ham or a son of Shem or a son of Japheth, they are incapable of ruling this world.” (McGhee, pp. 33-34)

The sons of Japheth were remote in the Old Testament and very little is said about them there. Recorded history for the Japhetic races does not begin until about 1000 B.C.

Rome was founded in 750 B.C. City-states in Greece did not begin until 800 B.C. The sons of Shem did not emerge as a racial or cultural group until the time of Abraham (1800-1600 B.C.). However, the sons of Ham ruled Shinar (Sumer) as early as 4000 B.C. Hamites ruled Ethiopia from 3500 B.C. to this present day. Hamites ruled Egypt from 3500 B.C. to the Persian conquest of Egypt in 525 B.C. Hamites ruled Canaan from 4000 B.C. to 1200 B.C. and Mesopotamia from 4000 B.C. to 2350 B.C. The ancient Egyptian and Sumerian people enslaved Japhetic, Semitic and even other Hamitic people. Seemingly the dominant group always rules the minority people. Hamites ruled India from 3000 B.C. until conquest of the Persians in 500 B.C. In every instance, these peo­ple led extremely advanced civilizations and cultures. Dr. T.B. Matson, a former professor of Christian Ethics at Southwestern Baptist Theologi­cal Seminars); had this to say about the early descendants of Ham:

“Those who emphasize the curse of Ham need to remember that some of the descendants of Ham, even some of the chil­dren of Canaan, were quite prosperous. They built great cities, such as Ninevah and Babylon. They were rearing palaces, dig­ging canals, organizing governments and founding empires at a time when descendants of Japheth were wandering over Europe with no better weapons than implements of flint and bone.” (Dr. T.B. Matson, The Bible and Race, Nashville, TN, Broadman Press, 1959)

Observation: History can be divided into three dimensions. Generally speaking, each race has been given 2000 years to reign: the Reign of Ham – 4000 B.C. to 2000 B.C.; the Reign of Shem 2000 B.C. to 300 B.C.; the Reign of Japheth – 300 B.C. to the present. What will happen when Japheth’s reign is over? Could it be that we then enter into a period that I call the Reign of Jesus? John the Apostle envisioned the time when all the redeemed “of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation” would stand before the throne and worship Jesus (Revelation 5:9). “He which testifieth these things saith, surely I come quickly. Amen. Even so, Come, Lord Jesus.” (Revelation 22:20)

As the election of Senator Obama to the presidency of the U.S. began to look like a possibility in the fall of 2008, it prompted me to reflect on McGhee’s view of racial history. Understanding that the sons of Ham ruled 2000 years, the sons of Shem ruled two thousand years, and for the past two thousand years the sons of Japheth were ruling—it triggered the question in my mind, what would happen at the end of two thousand years of European/Japhetic Rule? I thought of only two possibilities: (1) The return of Jesus; or (2) The return of a son of Ham to political leadership.

President Obama is undeniably a son of Ham, or Africa. The President of the National Baptist Convention in 1973 began his address with these words:  ”The sons of Ham have gathered.” The Bible calls Egypt the land of Ham (Psalm 105:23, 27; 106:22). The Yoruba Tribe in Nigeria traces their roots back to “Ham.” The unusualness of a direct African descendant being elected President of the U.S. is staggering and astounding to many. Many of us disagree vehemently with his abortion and same-sex marriage policies, but we must admit he was God’s sovereign choice for this position. He certainly provides poetic justice for America’s racist past.

Many Americans of all colors and political persuasions thought that they would never live to see the day that the son or daughter of Africa would become President of the United States of America. I was no different. Yet, in the back of my mind I was cognizant of McGhee’s view of racial history, and I was also aware of Psalm 68:31; therefore, it was not totally out of the realm of possibility from my perspective. The original King James Version reads:

“Princes shall come out of Egypt; Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God.”

The word “Princes” in Hebrew can mean bronze. The root word for “Princes” means political figures, nobles, kings, envoys or ambassadors. Princes, kings, and/or envoys shall come out of Egypt according to the Hebrew Bible. The Ethiopian will soon stretch out their hands to God.

When the Bible speaks of Ethiopia, Egypt, and the land of Ham, it is talking about the entire continent of Africa. On the earliest maps, the entire continent would be labeled by one of those three names.

In this obscure verse, God was showing David something. I’m not saying this with certainty, but, it appears that David was saying that descendants of Africa would have a political impact beyond Africa. David said Princes shall “come out of” Egypt or Africa. Africa would be their roots, but their “shoots” would be elsewhere.

Perhaps this is the reason that Barack Obama’s dad is not from Alabama, Georgia, Arkansas, or Tennessee. Who would have ever thought that America would have a President named with a Hebrew and African name: “Barack Obama”? President Obama’s name and his dad are directly out of Kenya. Kenya is just below Egypt and at one time Egypt engulfed that whole area. Princes, political leaders, kings, nobles and dignitaries will emanate from, or come directly out of Africa. They will have a political impact according to the Psalmist.

Dr. King in an interview with BBC in 1960 stated that America could have a Negro President in forty years. He missed it by eight years. If Dr. King could see it, I believe the Hebrew writer of Psalm could also see it. We have seen a proliferation of African descendants in political leadership at every level in America over the past fifty years. Canada and Europe have also seen African descendants occupy political seats in their domain. This was out of the question in the first half of the last century, with few exceptions.

If I asked you who pastored the largest church in Europe, would you not assume that it would be a European? No! The largest church in Europe is pastored by an African from Nigeria named Sunday Adelaja, in Kiev, Ukraine. How does a Nigerian get 26,000 Europeans to join his church? Could it be because “Princes shall come out of Egypt, and the African will stretch out their hands to God—meaning that they will come to God and influence the world for God?

In Psalm 72:10, 15, it is predicted that gifts would be brought to the Messiah from Tarshish (Gen. 10:4, Japheth), Seba and Sheba (Gen. 10:7, Ham) and Sheba (Gen. 10:28, Shem). Isaiah 18:2, 7 says that gifts would be brought from Cush or Ethiopia. Perhaps this Scripture was fulfilled when the Wise Men came with gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh. Descendants of Ham, Shem and Japheth brought gifts to Jesus. Descendants of Ham, Shem, and Japheth have been political rulers at different points in world history.

At the cross, Shem (Jesus) hung on the cross, Ham helped Jesus carry the cross-Simon of Cyrene—an African country, and the Romans (Japheth) hung Him on the cross. The Roman soldier who pierced Him cried out, “Surely, this must be the Son of God.”

In Acts 8:26-39, an African (son of Ham) gave his life to Christ. In Acts, 9:1-19, Saul (son of Shem) was converted to Christ and his name was changed to Paul. In Acts 10:1-33, Cornelius (an Italian 10:1, son of Japheth) was converted to Christ.

In Acts 13, leaders of the first Gentile congregation are Barnabas from Cyprus, a European country, “Simeon who was called Niger” (Niger is a term denoting an African), Manaen, “brought up with Herod” a Roman (son of Japheth), and Saul (Paul, a son of Shem).

It appears that at critical points in history, God tended to work through the various sons of Noah and their descendants.

Dr. King seemingly understood a very special and unique role of Israel and the Jews in World History. During Israel’s 1956 war with Egypt, he wrote:  “There is something in the very nature of the universe which is on the side of Israel in its struggle with every Egypt.” (Schneier, Shared Dreams, pp. 160-161)

In his very last sermon preached in Memphis, TN, Dr. King spoke about his trip to Jerusalem and Jericho in Israel in 1959. “Then Jesus answered and said: “A certain man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves, who stripped him of his clothing, wounded him, and departed, leaving him half dead” (Luke 10:30). That trip provided Dr. King with critical insight into the Parable of the Good Samaritan, having observed the peculiarities of the road between Jerusalem and Jericho (Luke 10:30-51):

“You see, the Jericho road is a dangerous road. I remember when Mrs. King and I were first in Jerusalem. We rented a car and drove from Jerusalem down to Jericho. And as soon as we got on that road, I said to my wife, “I can see why Jesus used this as the setting for his parable.” It’s a winding, meandering road. It’s really conducive for ambushing. You start out in Jerusalem, which is about 1200 miles — or rather 1200 feet above sea level. And by the time you get down to Jericho, fifteen or twenty minutes later, you’re about 2200 feet below sea level. That’s a dangerous road. In the days of Jesus it came to be known as the “Bloody Pass.”

Dr. King’s visit to Israel enhanced his knowledge of the Bible and informed his preaching.

Dr. King cultivated a mutual reciprocal relationship with the Jewish Community. He spoke against anti-Semitism whether it was regarding Jews in the Soviet Union or Negroes in New York. Dr. King’s powerful and positive working and personal relationship with Jews is perhaps the most neglected aspect of his legacy. The Jews in Israel have named a street in his honor. African Americans ought to visibly and tangibly document and demonstrate appreciation and affection toward the legacy of Jewish involvement in the Civil Rights Movement.

Many African Americans fifty years of age or older would recognize names like Ralph Abernathy, Fred Shuttlesworth, Hosea Williams, Fannie Lou Hamer, Daisy Bates, A.G. Gaston, Thurgood Marshall, Wyatt Walker and Benjamin Hooks. All of these men and women played significant roles in the Civil Rights Movement.

Oliver Brown was the plaintiff named in the Brown vs. the board of Education case that led to the desegregation of the public schools. But it was a Jewish woman who hired the attorney and raised the funds for his fees. Her motivation was simply that she resented the fact that her Black housekeeper’s children were being educated in a “separate but equal” dilapidated shack that passed as the Black school house. The Jewish woman’s name who led this effort was Esther Brown. Esther Brown’s name ought to be remembered in African American History.

There were many who stood with Dr. King and some lost their lives in an effort to bring liberty and justice for all. Who could forget Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner, whose bodies were found not far from Philadelphia, MS? These Jewish men died while on a pursuit to investigate church burnings and the beating of church members by the Ku Klux Klan in Longdale, MS. We need to remember those brave Jewish Rabbis in the South who fought against discrimination:  Perry Nussbaun, Charles Mantinband, and Alfred Goodman.

When one considers the martyrdom of James Chaney, a Black man who was with Goodman and Schwerner, once again, we have descendants of Shem, Ham, and Japheth participating in a Kingdom enterprise for God’s glory and the common good.

We need to remember the cadre of Jewish lawyers who greatly aided the cause: Morris Abram, Stanley Levison, and Jack Greenberg, who worked as second in command of the NAACP’s Legal Defense Fund, under Thurgood Marshall.

Time and space will not permit the naming of all persons worthy; but suffice it to say that Blacks and Jews have a storied history, even with tensions and strained relationships along the way.

Rabbi Friedlander, a participant in the march from Selma to Montgomery in 1965 shared personal reflections and a biblical perspective of Jews and Africans marching together. The Rabbi reported:

“Some images stand out in my mind: Professor Abraham Heschel marching in front of me, firm and erect, the wind catching his white beard and hair…. A Negro lady (Mrs. Foster), walking next to me, pointed out the exact spot on that highway where Alabama troopers had beaten her to the ground. ‘Going all the way this time,’ she smiled, and waved to some friends along the road….

But the heart of the march was the group of Negro marchers from Alabama who wanted the vote, each with a red band on his arm, still in mourning for Jimmy Lee Jackson and their other, unknown, martyrs. It was their march; and perhaps our main reason for being with them was the fact that our white skins gave them some protec­tion from the rifles ready in the swampland surrounding us…

If nothing else, we had finally felt the living essence of the words of Amos: ‘Are ye not as the children of the Ethiopians unto Me, Oh children of Israel?’”

What a powerful, scriptural quote from Rabbi Friedlander (Amos 9:7), recognizing that the roots of the relationship between the African American and the American Jew was rooted in Scripture. The presence of the White Jews among the Civil Rights Marches probably saved the lives of many. Thank God for our Jewish brethren!

I want to conclude with a couple of powerful quotes that sum up Dr. King’s position on the important of understanding the Jewish Heritage of the Christian Faith:

“Jesus was a Jew… [And] it is impossible to understand Jesus outside the race in which he was born. The Christian Church has tended to overlook its Judaic origins, but the fact is that Jesus of Nazareth was a Jew of Palestine. He shared the experiences of his fellow-countryman. So as we study Jesus we are wholly in a Jewish atmosphere.”

“I draw not from Marxism or any other secular philosophy but from the prophets of Israel; from their passion for justice and cry for righteousness. The ethic of Judaism is integral to my Christian faith.” (Schneier, Shared Dreams, p. 32)

May God use this writing to whet our appetites to grow in the Jewish understanding of our Christian Faith! Dr. King is right:  “It is impossible to understand Jesus outside the race in which he was born.” If I may take a flight off of Dr. King’s runway, I might add: It is impossible to understand our Christian faith without understanding her Jewish roots.  May God grant us all the grace to stretch out our hands to the God of Israel, and His Son, Emmanuel, God with us (Matthew 1:21)!

Truly, Israel and Africa historically, spiritually, biblically, emotionally, physiologically, geographically, geologically and cooperatively—are connected. God Himself affirmed and testified to the connection:  “Are ye not like the people of Ethiopia to Me, O Children of Israel?” (Amos 9:7)



  1. says

    I thank the Lord for Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr and his leadership, which brought about “racial” equality (I put “racial” in quotations because I believe it is a very poor human construct. We are all of the human race.) He is a hero for people of every skin color.

    I also thank the Lord that a man with darker skin is president of the United States. It makes me proud to be an American.

    However, I do not praise the Lord for Barack Obama. Undoubtedly, in the sovereign will of God, he became president, but such was the case with Nero in Rome as well. Unbelievably, 96% of black voters voted for Obama in 2008, and 93% did so in 2012. How many of those folks claimed to be Christians who believe in the sanctity of human life, traditional marriage, and a plethora of other biblical values, which President Obama opposes? Many I’m afraid traded in the Bible for an opportunity to see a black man in the office of president of the United States. They helped to put a man into office who stands opposed to biblical values and even mocks the Bible. That’s shameful. Christians of every color should have a higher affinity than “race.”

    SBC President Fred Luter is a whole different situation. Here is a man of great Christian character. He loves the Lord, is passionate for His mission, and upholds the Bible in exemplary fashion. I praise the Lord for this man and rejoice that he is the president of the SOUTHERN Baptist Convention.

    Just imagine though if a black man had been nominated for president of the SBC who supported abortion, same-sex marriage, and whole host of other sinful things. Would 96% or 93% of the black messengers to the SBC have voted for that sort of man? I pray not, but given the track record, “race” may be more important that biblical convictions to some.

    • Dwight McKissic says


      Thanks. Great observations. I could not bring myself to vote for President Obama either time for the reasons that you mentioned. The problem though was/is, the Republicans in offering John McCain & Mitt Romney didn’t offer better alternatives; plus, many if us have voted for the Republican candidate for 30 + years, behind the party/platform view on abortion & gay rights/gay marriage issues. But nothing has changed. Actually, it has gotten worse. Therefore, I don’t believe that your critique of Blacks voting for a Black in spite of their positions on the named issues is well thought through. There were other valid reasons to vote for President Obama besides the reasons not to, that you mentioned. Thanks for your comment again. Happy MLK day.

  2. Greg Harvey says

    I admit to fascination with prophecy and how to apply it. My concern is how much time we sometimes spend trying to make sense of it. This leads me to hypothesize that there will be a telling of meaning in heaven and it will all make sense at that moment.

    In the meantime, we ought to spend a healthy amount of time pondering what God intends with prophetic utterance. This piece by Dwight is, frankly, an eyeopener for me. Perhaps the best reason for that is because we are naturally ethnocentric: we are most interested in how our people group fits into the story. So we–which in this case means ME–might not be as good at considering the other ethnic groups and how it all stitches together.

    There is also a healthy skepticism on my part of using the sons of Noah framework for interpreting history based on what I consider to be an abysmal handling of the “race of Ham”. But the thought that there have been dispensations given to each of the three sons of Ham and that they’re roughly similar in length is fascinating.

      • Dwight McKissic says


        One more thing. If McGhee’s view if racial history had been taught in SBC colleges and seminary’s from day one, we would never have had the SBC standing on the wrong side of this issue. To learn how strongly the Jewish people & leaders supported the Civil Rights Movement, and how much the SBC opposed it, us very challenging & problematic for me. It calls into question, what good is orthodoxy without “orthopraxy”? Piper addresses that question in the link David R. provided.

        • Greg Harvey says

          If we had been able to honestly handle historical truth, I agree. I regret to speculate that we might not have. If my instinct on the subject is correct, the entire nation was caught in the web of sin along with our European friends. Sin explains the defect of being unable to handle truth truthfully in the simplest (and biblically faithful) way. So borrowing Occam’s razor, it probably is the best explanation as well.

          Btw: I meant “sons of Noah”, not “sons of Ham” when I wrote earlier…just caught the error.

          And I wish you a happy and hopeful MLK day in return! I feel the past few years created hope for our convention as we continued to wrestle with our past by voting for a more hopeful future that seeks to deal fairly and justly. For me, that is what redemption looks like…replacing a compromised past with a hopeful future.

  3. David Rogers says

    My wife and I went to see Lee Daniel’s The Butler at the budget movie last night. Though I am aware this movie does not purport to be historically accurate with regard to many personal details, I believe the overall presentation it gives of the perspective of growing up African-American in the USA during the last century is frightening accurate, and gave me a new appreciation for this reality. While as a super-privileged WASP male, and as a Christian who has come to see evils of racism, I have many reasons to defend a mindset of “Why can’t we all just be colorblind and put the past behind us?”, this movie helped me understand better why for many African-Americans race and equal rights is such a big deal, and they can’t just put it behind them.

    The illustration that comes to mind is that of a football game in which one team, by cheating and abusing the rules, while inflicting lots of pain on the other team and leaving them decimated by a slew of injuries, is ahead 93 to 0 at halftime; then, in the locker room at halftime realize what they have been doing is not right, feel remorseful for it, and come back and confess their wrongdoing to the other team, and say, “In the second half, we commitnot to cheat anymore.” All good and well, but you still leave the other team with the daunting task of coming back from a 93–0 deficit, and decimated by injuries.

    Then, we have the problem of the moral and doctrinal defects of people such as MLK and Obama. Because of the overwhelming rightness of their cause in other areas, ought we to just turn a blind eye to these defects? I think not. We must be vigilant to defend the truth on all sides. But, by the same token, we must not let our opposition to moral and doctrinal error on one count blind us in any way to the overwhelming rightness and crucial importance of the other aspects.

    John Piper has some good words with regard to all this here:

    • Dwight McKissic says

      David R.,

      Thanks for the Piper link. Read it. Quite interesting. Still chewing on it.

      Very much appreciate your perspective & understanding. Your football analogy is one for the ages. A lack of understanding of the truth communicated by this analogy is one of the greatest hindrances to better race relations. My wife & I went to see The Butler twice. It does reflect the realities of the time. I lived through it, observed it. In spite of King’s foibles, God used him to change that ugly period in our history. For that, I join you & others who comment here, in celebrating MLK day.

    • cb scott says

      Dwight and David,

      Stop the presses.

      I know Dr. King’s contributions and those of his father and of my personal hero, Ralph Abernathy. I was there. I don’t need the angry Hamden Rice that Debbie Kaufman to tell me about it in his highly “slanted” fashion.

      However, David, you made the following statement in your comment:

      “Then, we have the problem of the moral and doctrinal defects of people such as MLK and Obama. Because of the overwhelming rightness of their cause in other areas . . . ”

      Tell me, brothers. What “overwhelming rightness” has the current POTUS done that would bring such an accolade from you, David? How is it that you would give him “rank” anywhere equal with that of Dr. King? That is just strange fire, guys and you both know better. Shame on you for such non-sense.

      • cb scott says

        That should have been:

        “I don’t need the angry Hamden Rice that Debbie Kaufman ‘quotes’ to tell me about it in his highly “slanted” fashion.”

        • Christiane says

          if there is ‘anger’, that is better than ‘fear’ . . .

          but it wasn’t either that led to the Civil Rights Movement . . . it was a sense that it’s time had come and neither anger nor fear could stop what needed to be done, and done with pride and dignity worthy of human beings who knew to no longer ‘cooperate’ with the abuse they had been made to endure for so long . . .

          the time had come for it to happen,
          and we celebrate that today

      • David Rogers says

        “Overwhelming rightness” is with regard to the cause of civil rights and racial reconciliation.

      • Dwight McKissic says


        We share an appreciation & admiration for Ralph Abernathy. I can’t speak for David. Obama certainly is not the same transformational person that King was. Our nation will not be better or different after 8 years of Obama(Bin Laden, Kadafhi, and Obama Care for some would cause them to disagree with my position).

        What King & Obama have in common is they were both able to win the majority of the Amerjcan Citizens of all colors to support their public life & advocacy. No politician has built the kind of multi-ethnic support system behind them as has Obama. The same could be said of King. They both speak the language of justice, equality, fairness, opportunity & progress. That language is foreign to many public figures(exp Romney).

        Finally, MLK never expressed libera theology in his pulpit, or in his many public speaking engagements across the country. If a liberal, he was a closet liberal. He was active in the NBC and the doctrinal statement of the NBC was identical to the ’63 Baptist Faith & Message statement. I have no evidence that he preached contrary to that document. I find it interesting, no one mentions Criswell’s, John Broadus, B H Carroll, and so many others documented racism when there names are mentioned. Why do we find it necessary to bring up MLK’s alleged doctrinal & moral defects? Johnathan Edwards was a racist. Should that be mentioned every time his name is brought up?

        • cb scott says


          I said not one thing about any alleged “doctrinal or moral defects” of Dr. King. Not one word. So don’t put that on me.

          My point is that to compare King’s accomplishments with anythings the POTUS has done is a stretch too far in the direction of the absurd for right thinking people such as are you and David. That is just nothing more than pandering to the bandwagon of political correctness that is destroying this country. The POTUS has done nothing to help this nation. His entire presidency has been in diametric opposition to the better welfare of this nation’s entire populace without regard to ethnic heritage.

          To compare the two based on racial commonality is a slap in the face to the legacy of Dr. King.


          The POTUS has done nothing, not one thing to promote the “cause of civil rights and racial reconciliation.”

          What he has done is to throw gasoline on the fires of racial tensions in this country. To say he has done anything other than that is to be delusional in one’s thinking. I doubt seriously that were he alive, Dr. King would have voted for the incumbent in 2012. Smart men just don’t vote for train wrecks.

          • Dwight McKissic says


            You are right ’bout not having said anything ’bout King’s moral & doctrinal defects. Let me be clear: I don’t think his moral or doctrinal issues should be ignored or swept under the rug. I just don’t believe that it’s necessary to mention it as much as it is mentioned in SBC circles. And if it is mentioned as often as it is, then I expect the same treatment for SBC personalities who have known or documented sin issues in their lives. I really was not directing my remark at any one person, but rather, to any & all of us, who find it necessary to raise this issue as often as we do.

            King & Obama’s commonalities are leadership, legacy, family men, high education levels, & capturing the attentions of the masses. Because it is generally recognized that without the “ministry” of MLK, there would not have been an Obama, Therefore, they are linked whether u agree, or like it, or not.

          • cb scott says


            Let’s leave off the word “leadership” and agree that the word “legacy” must be strictly define in reference to each from your list of commonalities and we have a deal. However, beyond that there is no comparison. The two men are polar opposites as far as contributions to the welfare of this nation and any and all ethnic groups that inhabit it. One did much. The other has done nothing.

          • Dwight McKissic says


            We have a deal. Although the word “leadership” simply means in this context that both King & Obama had/have a whole lot of people who followed/follow their positions, I do get your point; there is a difference in the content & destination of their leadership, therefore, it “leadership” is not the best word to describe their commonalities, unless the distinctions are noted.

  4. Jim Hedrick says

    I will my comment …….Facinating indeed. Ethnocentric tribalism is alive after the passing of so many dispensationaladministrations. May we give a care for our neighboring gibes all the while lifting up King of all the Tribes Jeaus Christ The Lord. I thank God for MLKJr. He was providential voice of truth among the proud and also the weak in many tribes.

  5. volfan007 says


    Very interesting…very interesting.

    BTW, my wife and I watched “The Help” last night for about the 8th time…we love that movie. It reminds me of the past…when I was a little boy. I remember how things were. Thank God, they’re not that way, anymore.

    Also, I would add another hero to your list, Dwight, even though he was not Jewish. Ed Campbell was a White Pastor in MS….in Philadelphia, MS…. during the time when the Civil Rights Workers were killed by the klan. In fact, one of the killers was his next door neighbor. Unbeknownst to Ed, 2 of his Deacons were in the klan, which he found out later, when they got mad at him, and left the Church. Ed Campbell stood up…in Philadelpia, MS…back in a day when the klan had a lot of power down there. He became a member of the school board, which had just desegregated. His family and his life were threatened. People left his Church. People treated them mean and ugly around town. And yet, still, Ed Campbell walked tall.

    I thank God for men like Ed Campbell. I got to know him, when I pastored a Church in N. MS….he was retired, and came to my Church. He told me some stories about the “Good ole days.” Man, it must’ve been extremely hard on Pastor’s like Ed.

    Anyway, I wanted to share about Ed Campbell. I wanted to brag on him for a little while. And maybe, just maybe, inspire a few of us to walk tall, today.



    • Dwight McKissic says


      Thank God for Ed Cambell. Didn’t know about him, but it’s people like him that the SBC need to know about. He was just as impactful as people mentioned in my post. I believe that that angle if SabC history ought to be taught. T B Maston is perhaps the only SBC personality that I am aware of that championed racial equality & understanding. I sure would like to be able to visit with Cambell by phone. He truly embodies the spirit of MLK day. Thanks again.

  6. cb scott says

    Obama is not a fulfillment of anything other than to reveal that the end of the world is coming as evil intensifies on the earth.

    • Dwight McKissic says


      I am in Birmingham, Al as I type this on my IPhone. I wish you were still here so that we could have a Sherman/Crabtree pow-wow-:).

      You are correct that some of Obama’s policies are evil to the core(same-sex marriage, gay rights, tax-payer funded birth control in the Obama Care plan, abortion–to be specific). However, as one who believe in a literal understanding of Scripture, you cannot get around the fact that Psalm 68: 31 predicts future leadership ascending from Africa. At some point, this Scripture has to be fulfilled. I am willing to concede that it may not be referencing or fulfilled in Obama, but inevitably, it has been or will be fulfilled in descendants of Africa occupying positions of political and spiritual power. Thanks for your bold and vintage CB style compliment here. I’ll be in Birmingham ’til Friday. If you by chance come back thus way, please come & buy me a cup if coffee. Thanks.

    • Dwight McKissic says


      Thanks for adding value to this discussion with the link you provided and your commentary. I knew some if that information anecdotally, and through oral tradition, but I appreciate getting the documentation. Happy MLK Day. Thanks again.

  7. Debbie Kaufman says

    Forgive me, I pushed the publish button acccidently. The article goes on to say: “He ended the terror of living as a black person, especially in the south.

    I’m guessing that most of you, especially those having come fresh from seeing The Help, may not understand what this was all about. But living in the south (and in parts of the midwest and in many ghettos of the north) was living under terrorism.

    It wasn’t that black people had to use a separate drinking fountain or couldn’t sit at lunch counters, or had to sit in the back of the bus.

    You really must disabuse yourself of this idea. Lunch counters and buses were crucial symbolic planes of struggle that the civil rights movement used to dramatize the issue, but the main suffering in the south did not come from our inability to drink from the same fountain, ride in the front of the bus or eat lunch at Woolworth’s.

    It was that white people, mostly white men, occasionally went berserk, and grabbed random black people, usually men, and lynched them. You all know about lynching. But you may forget or not know that white people also randomly beat black people, and the black people could not fight back, for fear of even worse punishment. ”

  8. Debbie Kaufman says

    “White people also occasionally tried black people, especially black men, for crimes for which they could not conceivably be guilty. With the willing participation of white women, they often accused black men of “assault,” which could be anything from rape to not taking off one’s hat, to “reckless eyeballing.”

    This is going to sound awful and perhaps a stain on my late father’s memory, but when I was little, before the civil rights movement, my father taught me many, many humiliating practices in order to prevent the random, terroristic, berserk behavior of white people. The one I remember most is that when walking down the street in New York City side by side, hand in hand with my hero-father, if a white woman approached on the same sidewalk, I was to take off my hat and walk behind my father, because he had been taught in the south that black males for some reason were supposed to walk single file in the presence of any white lady.

    This was just one of many humiliating practices we were taught to prevent white people from going berserk.

    I remember a huge family reunion one August with my aunts and uncles and cousins gathered around my grandparents’ vast breakfast table laden with food from the farm, and the state troopers drove up to the house with a car full of rifles and shotguns, and everyone went kind of weirdly blank. They put on the masks that black people used back then to not provoke white berserkness. My strong, valiant, self-educated, articulate uncles, whom I adored, became shuffling, Step-N-Fetchits to avoid provoking the white men. Fortunately the troopers were only looking for an escaped convict. Afterward, the women, my aunts, were furious at the humiliating performance of the men, and said so, something that even a child could understand.

    This is the climate of fear that Dr. King ended.”

  9. Bob Browning says

    I am going to quote verses 24-35 of Psalm 68, which Dwight has referenced in this article. Then I would like to offer a comment or two.

    Psalm 68:24-35
    24 Your procession is seen, O God, the procession of my God, my King, into the sanctuary—
    25 the singers in front, the musicians last, between them virgins playing tambourines:
    26 “Bless God in the great congregation, the LORD, O you who are of Israel’s fountain!”
    27 There is Benjamin, the least of them, in the lead, the princes of Judah in their throng, the princes of Zebulun, the princes of Naphtali.
    28 Summon your power, O God, the power, O God, by which you have worked for us.
    29 Because of your temple at Jerusalem kings shall bear gifts to you.
    30 Rebuke the beasts that dwell among the reeds, the herd of bulls with the calves of the peoples. Trample underfoot those who lust after tribute; scatter the peoples who delight in war.
    31 Nobles shall come from Egypt; Cush shall hasten to stretch out her hands to God.
    32 O kingdoms of the earth, sing to God; sing praises to the Lord, Selah
    33 to him who rides in the heavens, the ancient heavens; behold, he sends out his voice, his mighty voice.
    34 Ascribe power to God, whose majesty is over Israel, and whose power is in the skies.
    35 Awesome is God from his sanctuary; the God of Israel—he is the one who gives power and strength to his people. Blessed be God!

    First let me say that the delay in my comment is due to the fact that I did not rush into replying here. Due to the sensitive nature of the topic I wanted to make sure I was voicing a concern over Biblical issues and was not letting my own biases cloud my judgment. So I pray that what I say here will be Spirit-lead and Christ-honoring.

    There is much insight in this article that needs to be heard. There is obviously much to be gained from learning from each other’s unique perspectives. And there is even a lot to be learned from understanding how those perspectives give us different insights into Scripture.

    However, our unique perspectives must not be allowed to become our interpretive grid (or hermeneutic) for Scripture. Since I believe that Baptist Covenant Theology serves as the best framework for understanding God’s and mankind’s complex story, I must respectfully disagree with Dwight’s interpretation of Psalm 68:31, and here is why.

    First, the entire Psalm centers around God and the praise He deserves – I believe we’d all agree on that. However, I realize that doesn’t prohibit the passage from making other true statements about past/current/future events. But it’s still always good to bear in mind what the point of the passage actually is.

    Second, verses 24-35 mention lots of people: singers, musicians, virgins, a great congregation, Israel, Benjamin, princes of Judah, princes of Zebulun, princes of Naphtali, kings, those who lust after tribute, the peoples who delight in war, nobles (or princes) from Egypt, Cush (or Ethiopia), kingdoms of the earth, and his (God’s) people. But notice what’s happening… they’re either worshiping the Lord or their being destroyed by Him. Nobody is coming to claim power for himself, rather they are all gathering to give ascribe praise to the Lord.

    Third, applying verse 31 to President Obama appears to be very incorrect because the second half of the verse clearly reads “Cush (Ethiopia) shall hasten to stretch out her hands to God.” As we all seem to agree from the above discussion, President Obama has been a strong supporter of numerous abominations – he has most certainly NOT lead African-Americans (or anyone else) to stretch out their hands to God.

    In closing, let me say that I welcome any comments from those that agree with Dwight’s interpretation – none of us are infallible and I’ll admit I could be missing something here. Until that happens though, my understanding of Psalm 68:31 is that it signifies yet another people group being reached by the gospel and bringing glory to God – because THAT is what the Bible is about.

    In Christ,

    -Bob Browning

    • Dwight McKissic says

      “…he has certainly Not led African Americans or anyone else to stretch out their hands to God.”


      The Sunday following the Obama election in 2008, and the Sunday before his inaugural were incredible powerful days of worship in African American churches. And literraly, multiple thousands of African American Worshipperes stretched out their hands to God. It was not exclusively because he was elected; it was primarily because that America demonstrated that a person’s color would not automatically prohibit them from being elected president. Many if us lifted our hands because we saw a correlation between his election & Psalm 68: 31. There were many worship services triggered or enhanced because of the election. And yes, many clapped, danced, swayed, and prayed while stretching out their hands to God.

      • Bob Browning says


        Since what I’m about to say could sound similar (if not identical) to some of the statements that come from closet-case racists hiding behind their supposed Christianity, I want preface it with my own experience.

        I was born and raised on a farm outside of Selma, Alabama. I went to an all-white private school for K-12 and every day had to ride over the historic Edmund Pettus Bridge – however, we usually didn’t think of it as a symbol of Dr. King’s march to Montgomery, but rather as a way to get across the river. I grew up in a SBC church that had a closed-door policy to blacks before I was born (which had been repealed by the time I came around, though much of the attitude probably had not changed a lot). Supposing that I’d been converted when I was 8, I went on to live my life the way I pleased, always giving lip-service to God whenever the culture around me deemed it appropriate. Finally, a few years ago, God moved in my life and brought me to true repentance. Nothing has been the same since – I had been a slave of sin but am now a slave of Christ. I tell people the beauty of the gospel is not about you accepting Christ but about God accepting you! Finally, just to show God’s awesome design in bringing Himself glory, He has placed us in a Baptist church just outside Vicksburg, MS (note the historical similarity between Selma and Vicksburg) where I am currently one of three white members in the whole church, with my wife and son being the other two! While this experience has not been without its challenges, it has been an awesome blessing in more ways than I can list. I share this with you because I want you to know that I am deeply and genuinely concerned about seeing racism conquered by the gospel – especially in our own churches where this should simply be a given!

        With that said, here are my concerns about your perspective on President Obama and the election.

        1) I fear that one of the primary reasons he got elected is because he is black. If I am correct, then this is not true equality – to not vote for someone because of his skin color is just as wrong as voting for someone because of his skin color.

        2) I fear that the opportunity to have a black president overshadowed major political and moral issues for many African-Americans. I know this is true on a local scale because brothers at my church have shared how they have faced rejection by friends and family simply for not voting for Obama (some not even voting at all).

        3) While I have great respect for the office that Obama holds, I cannot regard him as a brother in Christ. If someone holding his views on abortion and marriage sought membership at our church, this would pose a serious problem because he/she would not be able to affirm our Biblical convictions, which would mean that person would be choosing to remain in unrepentant sin. Based on my own experience growing up as a cultural Christian (as described above) and my understanding of the gospel to be a call to faith AND repentance, I do not think President Obama’s unashamed contribution to redefine marriage and his support of abortion are signs of genuine repentance – they are signs though… “you shall know them by their fruit.”

        4) Finally, I am grieved that when a man such as this was elected to office, there would be such a lack of unity within the church of Jesus Christ as to the right response. While some churches may have been celebrating, there were many other churches that were not. As my pastor and I reflected on some of this earlier this week, in light of MLK Day, he shared what I think is the best expression of a Christian response to Obama’s election. I pray that he will put some of that in print soon, but I will briefly summarize it here. The right response to Obama’s election is to celebrate another step toward the realization of Dr. King’s dream, while at the same time grieving because we still are not there yet. His dream was not to see a black man elected president. His dream was not to see black’s obtain power. His dream was to see an entire culture transformed to see each other as equals. I believe he would be thrilled to see the progress we’ve made in being able to have so many black leaders in our country, but I think he would be grieved to see the theology that made him so passionate about equality being completely ignored in the case of the unborn. Let’s not forget the real dream.

        There is more I could say here, but I’ve already said more than I anticipated. I pray my words reflect the unity that we should have in the gospel and the grace that should be evident in our lives.

        -Bob Browning

        • Dwight McKissic says


          Thanks. Deeply appreciate the biographical data. Quite interesting. Your church is also quite interesting. Sounds like a great pastor is there too.

          1. Blacks generally vote 90% + for Democrats. The year Obama was elected was no exception. There is no proof that Obama was elected or received votes based on color. I didn’t vote for him and if color had been my only criteria, I would have voted for him. It is unfair in my opinion to say that Obama was elected because of his color, when there is no evidence to support such a claim. The Republican Party gave us two very bad choices, MaCain & Romney. That might explain his election moreso than anything else.

          2. I share your strong convictions that abortion & gay rights/gay marriage are non-negotiably wrong. I do not share your seeming belief that if one supports abortion rights or gay rights/marriage that means that they can’t be a Christian or a member of my church.

          3. It may be our different view of Obama that explains our different interpretations of Psalm 68: 31.

          4. I too ache over the disunity in the church. Jesus made it clear that a lack of unity could hinder our evangelism(John 17: 21).

          5. Let’s agree to disagree ’bout Obama. Do you see any possibility that Fred Luter, Condolezza Rice, Clarence Thomas, and LeCrae could be fulfilled that verse. Do you see it as a verse addressing a futuristic event? Do you believe that African descendants in other places who are genuine born-again believers coul fulfil that verse?

  10. Dwight McKissic says


    “Princes shall come out of Egypt” is the part if the verse that I stated may possibly apply to President Obama. President Obama like MLK, W A Criswell, Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton & Johnathan Edwards has some seriously flawed positions on certain issues, yet, he ascribes belief in the God of the Bible, and the Jesus of Scripture. Therefore, the reasons that you gave for believing that this verse does not apply to President Obama are not validated by the facts. And if this verse does not apply to him @ the others that I mentioned, who would you say that it applies to? Thanks Bob for your insight & commentary here. It is good getting feedback & pushback on my thesis and argument here. It forces me to critically analyze my thoughts here in light of Scripture.

    • Bob Browning says


      I apologize if my objection was not clear – often what’s crystal in my mind may be foggy in others’. So let me see if I can clarify this a bit. I’m going to start by restating what I “think” you are saying Psalm 68:31 means.

      I think you are saying the first half of verse 31 means the following: “People of African descent shall become important political leaders.” Now, please make sure I’m representing your interpretation fairly as I don’t want to simply disagree with something you haven’t said. But if I understand you correctly, then I think my paraphrase captures the substance of your interpretation.

      However, I don’t believe the text has to mean that at all – and based on the context of Psalm 68 I am saying it does not mean that. Instead, I would paraphrase the first half of verse 31 as follows: “The leaders of Egypt will come to (or participate in) the event being described in Psalm 68.” I believe this interpretation fits better with the overall context of Psalm 68, as well as with the second half of verse 31.

      My interpretation means that these leaders will be part of the awesome ceremony described in Psalm 68 where all sorts of people are coming to worship the Lord. Your interpretation on the other hand, seems to imply that in the midst of describing this awesome ceremony, the Psalmist has paused to offer a specific prophecy about future political leaders. I find that interpretation very troubling because the point of the passage is not that we should be on the lookout for men that will be important political leaders, but rather that all of these leaders and nations will finally be submitting to the KING of Kings and the LORD of Lords.

      One final point I’d make is the fact that there seems to be some debate over the proper translation of the word rendered as “princes” in the KJV. The NKJV translates it as “envoys”, as does the NASB and the NIV. I’ve quoted the ESV which translates it as “Nobles.” Then if we look at the RSV we get a significantly different translation of the first half of the verse: “Let bronze be brought from Egypt.” The NLT is similar: “Let Egypt come with gifts of precious metals.” These latter two translations definitely give the sense of leaders coming to worship the Lord – not a prediction of where political leaders will arise from. Therefore, I am comfortable with my interpretation because the KJV, NKJV, NASB, NIV, ESV, RSV, and even the NLT all support the meaning that I have argued for. Your interpretation on the other hand does not naturally arise from the RSV or NLT at all, and is even somewhat obscure in the language of the NKJV, NASB, and NIV. Unless you’re in the KJV-only camp (which would require a totally different discussion), then I think you’d agree that we must always be cautious of any teaching that is dependent on a single verse from a single translation.

      I hope this helps clarify my position. And again, if you feel I have misrepresented you here, please correct me as you see fit – I have simply done my best to restate your position as I understand it.

      I greatly appreciate you taking the time to hear my concerns and I pray our discussion here is profitable for each of us, as well as anyone else following the discussion. God bless.

      In Christ,

      -Bob Browning

      • Dwight McKissic says


        (1) You have not misrepresented my position.

        (2) For conversational purposes, let’s say that your position is correct, and it may be. Would that preclude the interpretation or application that descendants of Africa that claim the God of the Bible as Savior could be among the ones in the procession that you allude to?

        MLK, Luter, Obama, C. Rice, C. Thomas,etc., all claim the God if the Bible as their Savior. Even under your interpretation, couldn’t the processional include descendants from Africa in other places?

        (3) Thanks for deeper insights into this verse. It is one of my favorite verses. You have added to my knowledge & understanding of this verse and it’s context. Thanks again.

        (4) This was also a favorite verse of the salves. They interpreted it much like I have. This verse gave them comfort and hope. I am not surprised that the descendants of the slaves & the descendant of the slavemasters, don’t interpret & apply this verse the same way. That was/is the case with many verses dealing with race & justice issues in the Bible.

        (5) This is also a favorite verse of African American Men’s Discipleship Movements. It is viewed as a verse that clearly says, that God is mindful of African people specifically by name. It’s a verse that offers a prosperous spiritual future to African descendants. And yes, if “Princes” means political or governmental figures( which is one of the meanings) then, it suggest in some futuristic way they would bring an offering or “stretch out their hands to God.” Therefore, this verse provides much encouragement to a people who have been historically oppressed. At either rate, whether supported by this verse or not, a biblical understanding of the sovereignty of God, would lead one to give God the credit & glory for the advent of the previously mentioned names. What say ye? Thanks for the dialogue.

        • Bob Browning says


          First I just want to say I think this has been some really useful discussion. I am perfectly fine to agree to disagree with respect to personal opinions regarding President Obama, etc. Ultimately that is a matter where God Himself is the final judge and we would be wrong to spend too much time haggling over that. So, with that said, let’s move back to the Scriptural text at hand.

          I want to focus on your question of whether or not my interpretation precludes your understanding of Psalm 68:31. If you were to pin me down to give a “yes” or “no” answer on this, then I would have to say “yes, I do think my interpretation prohibits your interpretation.” HOWEVER, let me quickly say that you’ve helped me see it may not be that simple. So here’s my real answer, which a simple “yes” or “no” cannot fully capture.

          I think that Psalm 68 will see its ultimate fulfillment at the eschatological climax of the present age. So I would not say that you’re making too much out of verse 31, but rather too little. The fulfillment I see coming is one where there will not be any room for disagreement between brothers like us as to whether the political leaders are born-again followers of Jesus – it will be crystal clear who are the sheep and who are the goats – but everyone will be in submission to King Jesus. Those that are His chosen will reign with Him forever – those that have rejected Him will spend eternity in punishment – but everyone will be under the rule and reign of Christ.

          With that said, I do not have any problem with seeing how things in human history give foreshadowing to the climax yet to come. So if you were to preach this passage and say that you see Obama’s election and the steps our country’s made toward racial reconciliation as a “type” of what is yet to come – then I have no problem with that. But the key is to ensure we’ve communicated that it is only a foreshadowing of the ultimate fulfillment – not the fulfillment itself. To say that this verse is explicitly fulfilled by anything (whether it be my personal story, Obama’s election, Dr. King’s legacy, etc.) other than the grand finale at Christ’s return is to reduce the glorious promises of a blood-bought redeemed creation to a peaceful yet still sinful coexistence that man could potentially achieve under his own power.

          I’ll close by pointing to an article written by Jasmine Baucham that I think captures the spirit of my interpretation extremely well. The title of it says it all: “A Dream Bigger than Dr. King’s” – it was posted over at the Reformed African American Network earlier this week. Check it out here:

          I feel like we’ve come closer together through this discussion, and I’m very thankful for that. I greatly appreciate your patience and your gracious tone throughout your comments. I praise the Lord for His grace in all our lives that allows the body to grow together.

          In Christ,

          -Bob Browning

  11. Dwight McKissic says


    I agree this has been a fruitful conversation. I am intrigued by your biography & church affiliation. I am also blessed by your love for The Lord & His Word. Thanks for expanding my understanding of the verse we discussed. We have perhaps exhausted this discussion for now.

    But, as a person who see’s the value of believers worshipping & being members of churches that are racially cross pollinated, I am very thankful for what you are doing.
    We don’t know each other, but I would like to dialogue with you sometime about the challenges & experience of being apart of a church comprised of mixed races. Occasionally I pass through Vicksburg. I have a sister who is a gynecologist in Jackson. If you are willing to visit with me by phone here is my email address. Please email me your contact info if you are open to future dialogue around these matters in order to help me shape my thinking & commitment regarding inter-racial churches. Thanks.