This article was originally posted at my site. Only some of my articles are posted on SBC Voices. If you would like access to all of my articles, you can follow my feed here. You can also connect with me on Twitter, Facebook, and Google+.
John Calvin has been celebrated and hated ever since his public rebellion against the teachings of the Catholic Church. Many have argued that his doctrine of predestination killed his evangelistic fervor, and that it will also kill the evangelistic fervor in anyone who believes or teaches it. Some have argued that Calvin had no missionary enthusiasm at all.[i] Others have gone so far as to discount all the Reformers and Puritans as being too busy with local concerns to be concerned with foreign missions.[ii] Even those who affirm predestination in the same vein as Calvin are accused of neglecting evangelism as well. Currently in Southern Baptist life, some four hundred and fifty years after the death of Calvin, this writer hears many non-Calvinist pastors and laity come against Calvinism because “it will destroy evangelism.” The arguments are not new, but are simply presented with new garnishes. Joel Beeke however disagrees with those who argue against Calvin’s destruction of evangelism. Evaluating Calvin’s evangelistic lifestyle Beeke writes,
If Calvin could not shield himself from critics even when he worked twenty hours a day, preaching, teaching, and writing, what does that say about our work for God’s kingdom? If Calvin was not evangelistic, who is? Are we willing to confess with William Carey as we labor for the souls of sinners, “I had rather wear out than rust out?”[iii]
I hope at the very least that readers will examine their own lives, the lives of their evangelical heroes, and compare them to Calvin to see who is truly evangelistic; for if Calvin was not evangelistic, then who is? The answer is virtually no one. Few in history accomplished more in the name of Christ as Calvin.
With one group arguing against Calvin’s “lack of emphasis upon evangelism”, and another group arguing that he is a great model for evangelism, one must thoroughly examine Calvin himself in order to decipher the truth. Although Calvin did emphasize the sovereignty of God in salvation, he also strongly emphasized the responsibility of the church to share the gospel. In spite of the aforementioned indictments, Calvin affirmed the church’s responsibility in sharing the gospel both through his teaching and his actions.
Calvin taught that the church should be evangelistic
Regardless of the assumptions of those who do not understand how Calvin’s doctrine of predestination and man’s responsibility can co-exist, Calvin’s own writings testify that he taught and believed the church must be evangelistic. Calvin believed first of all that jealousy for God’s glory should motivate Christians to share the gospel. Secondly, he argued that the church should be evangelistic out of love for her neighbor. Thirdly, he believed the church should pray for the salvation of the lost regardless if there is visible fruit present from her ministry.
Calvin taught that the church should be jealous for God’s glory. He believed that the church should be concerned for her Father’s reputation because she has been adopted by God through Christ.[iv] He purported that God’s glory should spur the church to evangelism. She has had enough time living for herself; for this is why she came to Christ to begin with. He affirmed that when Christians pursue God’s glory in all things, the next step naturally is to be burdened for all people created in God’s image who are not bringing their Creator glory. To him, God was worthy of glory and praise from every person.[v] He taught that for true Christians, it is not enough that they bring glory to God, but they must also spread God’s truth everywhere so that God may be glorified in His entire world by His entire creation.[vi]
Furthermore, Calvin emphasized that jealousy for the glory of God should lead Christians to share the gospel, for the simple act apart from any response brings glory to God. Because sharing the gospel is an act of obedience to God, Calvin viewed sharing the gospel as God-glorifying. [vii] The Scriptures agree with Calvin in Matthew 28:18-20 and numerous other places. To him, God saves sinners, snatching them out of the Devil’s kingdom, not so they will be lazy, but so they will spread the goodness of God to all nations. Concerning the Christian’s response to God for doing excellent things, Calvin writes, “…it is our duty to proclaim the goodness of God to every nation.”[viii] Receiving the saving grace of Christ comes with a responsibility to the recipient; thus, Calvin affirmed that it was “just” for Christians to further the spread of the gospel.[ix]
Finally, Calvin taught that Christians need to share the gospel in order to show their gratitude for God’s grace.[x] Those who have been freed from their sinful prison must remember who saved them, and that they have the key to release others from bondage. Calvin believed that it was inconsistent for Christians to be silent about the good news, for apart from God’s goodness in giving them the gospel, they would never have been reconciled to God. Therefore, to him, it was a contradiction for Christians to ignore their neighbors’ needs for they had experienced the totally depraved needs of the lost firsthand and had been flooded with the joy of having these needs met in Christ.[xi]
With God’s glory as the foundation and end goal of evangelism, Calvin believed that Christians had a divine calling to love their neighbors to the point of persuading them to Christ. He believed that Christians should desire the salvation of all people, from all nations, in under the sovereign rule of God. [xii] He even went so far as to argue that Christians should continue to pray for the salvation of all people whether they see fruit from their labors or not,[xiii] trusting that Christ will exercise power for their salvation and the rest of the world as well. In likeness to the love that Christ has shown Christians, they must arm themselves with the same mind toward the lost, freely extending the gospel without partiality as Christ has to them. [xiv]
Furthermore, without compromising the glory of God, Calvin taught that Christians must do everything they are capable of in order to draw all people to God. [xv] He believed that Christians must seek to bring every person to repentance that they come into contact with for God is sovereign over every encounter.[xvi] Because God is sovereign, Calvin taught that all encounters with non-Christians are open-door-opportunities for the furtherance of the gospel.[xvii] Contrary to popular belief, Calvin never allowed the sovereign effectual calling of God to undermine his giving of the free gospel to all men. He saw the effectual calling of God as God’s business, for it is part of His secret will, and God has determined to use the sharing of the gospel accompanied by the power of the Holy Spirit to call out the elect.[xviii] Therefore, Calvin argued that preachers must preach assuming that God will save their entire audience with His gospel.[xix] He even went so far to say that the Christian’s post-salvation pursuit of the lost was the condition for the Lord’s effectual calling.[xx] Calvin firmly believed that when God saves someone, He makes him or her a fisher of men.
Because God has determined to reach the lost through the sharing of the gospel by these “fishers of men,” the reality of the “man on the island” should further encourage Christians to pursue the unreached peoples with the gospel. Calvin believed that apart from hearing the gospel through the sovereign means given by God, His church, the unreached people groups, “the men on the Island,” then can not properly call upon the God whose goodness and kindness they have not known.[xxi] To him, this naturally followed that Christians have a responsibility to God to reach His image-bearers regardless of where they live in His world. Moreover, knowing that the unreached people groups cannot be reconciled to God apart from the gospel should burden Christians who have been entrusted with the gospel, to get the good news to them regardless the obstacles. Calvin believed the gospel was the lost man’s only hope, regardless his location in God’s world.[xxii]
In addition, Calvin lived and taught that no excuses should hinder the sharing of the gospel. He argued that even in the face of persecution, Christians should love God’s glory through loving their neighbors to Christ, regardless the consequences.[xxiii] In order to encourage those who were facing persecution in France, Calvin told them to remain faithful because of the heaven that was coming, instead of focusing on their impending persecution or martyrdom.[xxiv] Clearly, Calvin lived by the philosophy that as long as God is glorified, the physical health and wealth of His people on earth does not matter. Whether Christians were bleeding or flourishing was irrelevant to him. Loving his neighbors for God’s glory was his goal, not his own comfort.
Likewise, further proving his desire for God’s glory through loving his neighbors, Calvin emphasized that the church should have compassion on those who are deceived by their sins. He believed the church’s compassion should produce constant prayers on their behalf to the Lord.[xxv] Although God has predetermined all things for His glory, Calvin taught that Christians should still pray. His discussion on prayer is actually the longest section in the final edition of his Institutes of the Christian Religion. This is interesting for a man who supposedly overemphasized God’s sovereignty.
Furthermore, Calvin argued that Christians are incapable of distinguishing between the elect and non-elect. Because only God can distinguish between the elect and non-elect, Calvin taught that Christians should pray for all the reprobates, realizing that they are created in God’s image and are valuable, thus leaving the eventual separation of the elect and non-elect solely up to God instead of up to believers on earth.[xxvi] Consistently carried out, this shows that Calvin believed Jesus offered Himself to all, not merely to the elect.[xxvii] This simply proves Calvin’s desire for the salvation of all men. Because God is absolutely sovereign in salvation, Calvin believed Christians should pray to Him for the salvation of all people due to salvation occuring monergistically rather than synergistically. Also, Calvin believed that the fact that God will save some, should encourage Christians to continue sharing the gospel and praying.[xxviii] The doctrine of election then in Calvin’s mind undergirded evangelism instead of destroying it.[xxix] Those Christians who believe in God’s absolute sovereignty can share the gospel with confidence, for the results are solely up to God, and these Christians too can sleep, pray, and live as if God is in control of all things as well. To Calvin, the sovereignty of God freed Christians to unashamedly and indiscriminately share the gospel.
Calvin lived an evangelistic lifestyle
Calvin was not merely a teacher and preacher on evangelism, but was also consistently evangelistic in practice. First, Calvin was primarily a preacher. Second, Calvin invested in other pastors while emphasizing the gospel. Third, he sent church planters to reach the world with the gospel. Fourth, Calvin himself shared the gospel when opportunities presented themselves.
The center point of Calvin’s life and ministry was his preaching. During Calvin’s lifetime he preached some 4,000 sermons after his return to Geneva in 1541. This is more than 170 sermons a year. He would often preach on weekdays at six or seven in the morning and Sunday afternoons as well. [xxx] With the emphasis Calvin placed on preaching, one would assume that he believed his preaching was greatly effectual due to the number of sermons he preached; however, even a cursory glance at his writings reveals the opposite. Calvin believed that though hundreds heard his sermons, as low as one in ten actually possessed saving faith as a result.[xxxi] He believed hearers either loved the gospel or placed no value in it. [xxxii] Although he believed that few were truly converted through his preaching, this did not keep him from preaching. He preached, not because a certain number of people were responding, but because he believed the Christian’s responsibility was to preach the whole gospel to the whole world.
Calvin not only preached to reach the lost, but he also sought to equip other men to do the same. Although he had been investing in ministers beforehand, he officially established a school in Geneva to train ministers in 1559.[xxxiii] By the time Calvin’s successor Theodore Beza retired, the Geneva Academy had trained 1600 men for the evangelistic ministry.[xxxiv] Calvin would train these men theologically, test their preaching ability, and thoroughly examine and exhort their moral character.[xxxv] In order to be a good missionary, these men had to be good preachers, solid in the Word, and they had to practice what they preached. Through investing in these men, Calvin would eventually invest in the salvation of millions, for as this paper will detail later, several of these men went on to plant churches through which millions came to know Christ.
Calvin, as a type of mission agent, trained these men so that they would go forth into the world to spread the gospel. The statistics detailing the number of missionaries sent varies due to the secrecy needed because of persecution,[xxxvi] but Phillip Hughes helps his readers understand the number by writing,
According to the Register of the Company of Pastors, eighty-eight men were sent out between 1555 and 1562 from Geneva to different places in the world. These figures are woefully incomplete. In 1561, which appears to have been the peak year for missionary activity, the dispatch of only twelve men is recorded, whereas other sources indicate that nearly twelve times that number—no less than 142—went forth on respective missions.[xxxvii]
Some of these men went to France and planted churches. Many men had fled from France to Geneva because of persecution. While in Geneva, Calvin trained them, and they then took the gospel back to their homeland. This is why almost every region in France in the 1560s was saturated with the gospel.[xxxviii] Concerning this, Joel Beeke writes, “In 1555, there was only one fully organized Reformed church in France. Seven years later, there were close to two thousand.”[xxxix] This is truly astounding fruit for the labors of someone who has been labeled as being against evangelism. Even more astounding is the number of people who attended these churches. Beeke continues, “Some of the French Reformed congregations became very large. For example, Pierre Viret pastored a church of 8,000 communicants in Nimes. More than 10 percent of the French population in the 1560s—as many as three million—belonged to these churches.”[xl] Such great growth in such a small time marks itself out in history as one of the greatest movements of God since the miraculous growth of the early church. Other movements similar to this in history are few and often far in-between, and God brought all this about through a theologian who supposedly “did not believe in evangelism.”
Although Calvin had a broad view of reaching the world, he also looked for opportunities in his daily life to share the gospel. The first people Calvin shared Christ with were his family; of which J. H. Merle D’Aubigne’ writes:
He had found in his father’s house two brothers and a sister, Anthony, Charles, and Mary: these were the first persons he invited to Christ, in affectionate and pious conversations. He then turned to some members of the Episcopal clergy and other inhabitants of Noyon. He put his hand (to use his own expression) on those who were running elsewhere, ‘to stop them short.’ Anthony and Mary were the first to answer to him. Charles resisted longer; he received however at that time a seed in his heart which germinated afterwards.[xli]
Many Christians today have yet to share the gospel with their loved ones, and yet, these were the first people Calvin shared the gospel with.
Furthermore, there have been some who have portrayed Calvin as always writing and studying alone. Calvin did write often, but he did neglect his passion for studying and writing on occasion to personally share the gospel. Not long after Calvin’s conversion, while he was in Bourge, people sought him out to share the gospel with them. D’Aubigne’ details the results of this event:
Calvin accordingly entered into relations with students and townspeople, nobles and lawyers, priests and professors. The family of the Colladons held at that time a considerable station in Berry. Two brothers, Leo and Germain, and two sisters, Mary and Anne, were the first to embrace the Gospel in Berry. Leo and Germain were advocates, and one of their cousins, styled Germain IL in the genealogies, now eighteen years old, afterwards became Calvin’s intimate friend at Geneva. These ties of friendship had probably begun at Bourges.[xlii]
With few American Christians possessing this kind of zeal today, one must wonder what the definition of “evangelistic” is if Calvin is unworthy to be associated with the term, for not only did Calvin pursue adults, but also children.[xliii] He pursued all age groups with the gospel of Christ.
Anticipating the reader’s question concerning the fruit of these evangelistic encounters, it must be noted that this work he accomplished in the gospel was not in vain in many places. There was one instance where Calvin spoke in his hometown. Detailing this event D’Aubigne’ writes:
At last a young man, of middle height, with thin pale face, whose eyes indicated firm conviction and lively zeal, went up into the pulpit and explained the Holy Scriptures to his fellow-townsmen. The effects of Calvin’s preaching were various. Many persons rejoiced to hear, at last, a living word beneath that roof which had reechoed with so much vain and useless babbling. Of this number were, no doubt, certain notable men who were seen pressing round the preacher: Laurent of Normandy, who enjoyed great consideration in that district; Christopher Lefebvre, Lancelot of Montigny, Jacques Bernardy, Corneille de Yillette, Nicholas Neret, Labbe surnamed Balafre, Claude Dupre, and Nicholas Picot, Anthony Calvin’s brother-in-lavr. All were afterwards accused of having embraced the new doctrine, and were condemned by the Parliament of Paris to be drawn on hurdles and burnt in the great square of Noyon ; but they had already quitted the kingdom. The words of the young speaker did not merely communicate fresh knowledge—they worked a transformation of the heart and life. But there were men present quite ready to receive certain evangelical ideas, who yet did not mean to change either their life or their heart. The same word thus produced faith in some and opposition in others…[xliv]
Calvin believed that the gospel drives or draws those who hear it. God used John Calvin to affect large nations, as well as, the hearts of a local few. Truly Calvin deserves to be seen as an example for the church, at least in his full-orbed evangelistic lifestyle and theology.
In conclusion, Calvin taught evangelism, encouraged others to be evangelistic, and lived an evangelistic lifestyle. The evidence in favor of Calvin’s evangelistic fervor is overwhelming. Even with the cursory glance presented in this paper, one must wonder where those who accuse Calvin of not being evangelistic get their information. If Calvin was not evangelistic, then most Christians in history were not evangelistic either. Instead of Calvin’s doctrine of predestination hindering his evangelism, based on the evidence, it actually encouraged him to be more evangelistic. One then can safely label this man with more than merely the title “Reformer.” One can safely and accurately call him a “Missionary,” “Evangelist,” and “Soul-Winner.”
Bouwsma, William. John Calvin: A Sixteenth-Century Portrait. New York: Oxford, 1988.
Calvin, Jean and Arthur Golding. The Sermons of M. Iohn Calvin Upon the Fifth Booke of Moses Called Deuteronomie. London: Printed by Henry Middleton for George Bishop, 1583.
Calvin, Jean and Jules Bonnet. Letters of John Calvin. New York: B. Franklin, 1973.
Calvin, John. Sermons on the Epistle to the Ephesians, trans. Arthur Golding. Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 1973.
D’Aubigne?, J. H. Merle. History of the Reformation in Europe in the Time of Calvin. London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, & Green, 1863.
Hay, Alexander Rattray. The New Testament Order for Church and Missionary. Argentina; Audubon, N.J.: New Testament Missionary Union, 1947.
Hughes, Philip. The Heritage of John Calvin. ed. John H. Bratt. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1973.
Hunter, A. Mitchell. The Teaching of Calvin, a Modern Interpretation. Glasgow: Maclehose, Jackson, and Company, 1920.
Beeke, Joel. “John Calvin: Teacher and Practitioner of Evangelism.” Heritage Netherlands Reformed Congregation, web page; available from http://www.hnrc.org/files/CalvinTeacherOfEvangelism.pdf.
Hulse, Erroll. “John Calvin and his Missionary Enterprise,” Studies in Reformed Theology 11, no. 2 (2001), on-line; available from http://reformed-theology.org/html/issue04/calvin.htm.
James III, Frank A. “Calvin the Evangelist,” Reformed Quarterly 19, no. 2/3 (2001), on-line; available from http://rq.rts.edu/fall01/james.html.
Calvin, John. “Sermon on 1 Timothy 2:3-5,” on-line; available from http://www.monergism.com/thethreshold/sdg/calvin/calvin_36sermons.html#sermon32.
Calvin, John. Commentaries. Translated by Calvin Translation Society 1996. Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 2007. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/commentaries.i.html.
Calvin, John. Institutes of the Christian Religion. Translated by Henry Beveridge. Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 2005. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes.toc.html.
[i]A. Mitchell Hunter, The Teaching of Calvin, a Modern Interpretation (Glasgow: Maclehose, Jackson, and Company, 1920), 154.
[ii]Alexander Rattray Hay, The New Testament Order for Church and Missionary, (Argentina; Audubon, N.J.: New Testament Missionary Union, 1947), 257.
[iii]Joel Beeke, “John Calvin: Teacher and Practitioner of Evangelism,” Heritage Netherlands Reformed Congregation, web page; available from http://www.hnrc.org/files/CalvinTeacherOfEvangelism.pdf, 80-81.
[iv]John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, Translated by Henry Beveridge (Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 2005), http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes.vi.ii.html.
[vi]Jean Calvin and Jules Bonnet, Letters of John Calvin, (New York: B. Franklin, 1973), 4:169.
[vii]John Calvin, Commentaries, Translated by Calvin Translation Society 1996, (Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 2007), “Commentary on Matthew 13:24-30,” http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/calcom32.ii.xx.html.
[viii]John Calvin, Commentaries, Translated by Calvin Translation Society 1996, (Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 2007), “Commentary on Isaiah 12:5,” http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/calcom13.xix.i.html.
[ix]Jean Calvin and Jules Bonnet, Letters of John Calvin, (New York: B. Franklin, 1973), 2:453.
[x]Jean Calvin and Arthur Golding, “Sermon on Deuteronomy 24:10-13,” The Sermons of M. Iohn Calvin Upon the Fifth Booke of Moses Called Deuteronomie (At London: Printed by Henry Middleton for George Bishop, 1583), 852-858.
[xi]John Calvin, Commentaries, Translated by Calvin Translation Society 1996, (Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 2007), “Commentary on Isaiah 2:3,” http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/calcom13.ix.i.html.
[xii]John Calvin, Commentaries, Translated by Calvin Translation Society 1996, (Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 2007), “Commentary on Matthew 13:24-30,” http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/calcom32.ii.xx.html.
[xiii]Calvin and Golding, “Sermon on Deuteronomy 33:7-8,” The Sermons of M. Iohn Calvin Upon the Fifth Booke of Moses Called Deuteronomie, 1196-1202.
[xiv]John Calvin, Sermons on the Epistle to the Ephesians, trans. by Arthur Golding (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 1973), “Sermon on Ephesians 4:15-16”.
[xv]Calvin and Golding, “Sermon on Deuteronomy 33:18-19,” The Sermons of M. Iohn Calvin Upon the Fifth Booke of Moses Called Deuteronomie, 1215-1221.
[xvii]John Calvin, Commentaries, Translated by Calvin Translation Society 1996, (Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 2007), “Commentary on 2 Corinthians 2:12,” http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/calcom40.viii.iv.html.
[xviii]John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, Translated by Henry Beveridge (Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 2005), http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes.v.xxv.html.
[xx]John Calvin, Commentaries, Translated by Calvin Translation Society 1996, (Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 2007), “Commentary on Hebrews 10:25,” http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/calcom34.xvi.v.html.
[xxi]John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, Translated by Henry Beveridge (Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 2005), http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes.v.xxi.html.
[xxiii]Jean Calvin and Jules Bonnet, Letters of John Calvin, (New York: B. Franklin, 1973), 3:134.
[xxiv]John Calvin, Commentaries, Translated by Calvin Translation Society 1996, (Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 2007), “Commentary on Genesis 17:23,” http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/calcom01.xxiii.i.html.
[xxv]Calvin, Sermons on the Epistle to the Ephesians, “Sermon on Ephesians 6:18-19”.
[xxvi]John Calvin, Commentaries, Translated by Calvin Translation Society 1996, (Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 2007), “Commentary on John 17:9,” http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/calcom35.vii.ii.html.
[xxvii]John Calvin, “Sermon on 1 Timothy 2:3-5,” on-line; available from http://www.monergism.com/thethreshold/sdg/calvin/calvin_36sermons.html#sermon32.
[xxviii]John Calvin, Commentaries, Translated by Calvin Translation Society 1996, (Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 2007), “Commentary on John 10:27,” http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/calcom34.xvi.v.html.
[xxix]Beeke, John Calvin: Teacher and Practitioner of Evangelism, 80.
[xxx]William Bouwsma, John Calvin: A Sixteenth-Century Portrait (New York: Oxford, 1988), 29.
[xxxi]John Calvin, Commentaries, Translated by Calvin Translation Society 1996, (Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 2007), “Commentary on Psalm 119:101,” http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/calcom11.xxviii.xiii.html.
[xxxii]John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, Translated by Henry Beveridge (Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 2005), http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes.v.xxv.html.
[xxxiii]Beeke, John Calvin: Teacher and Practitioner of Evangelism, 71.
[xxxv]Frank A. James III, “Calvin the Evangelist,” Reformed Quarterly 19, no. 2/3 (2001), on-line; available from http://rq.rts.edu/fall01/james.html.
[xxxvi]Erroll Hulse, “John Calvin and his Missionary Enterprise,” Studies in Reformed Theology 11, no. 2 (2001), on-line; available from http://reformed-theology.org/html/issue04/calvin.htm.
[xxxvii]Philip Hughes, The Heritage of John Calvin, ed. John H. Bratt, (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1973), 45-46.
[xxxviii]Hulse, “John Calvin and his Missionary Enterprise,” on-line; available from http://reformed-theology.org/html/issue04/calvin.htm.
[xxxix]Beeke, John Calvin: Teacher and Practitioner of Evangelism, 74.
[xli]J. H. Merle d’Aubigne?, History of the Reformation in Europe in the Time of Calvin, (London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, & Green, 1863), 3:66.
[xlii]J. H. Merle D’Aubigne?, History of the Reformation in Europe in the Time of Calvin, (London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, & Green, 1863), 2:26-27.